Muslims believe there is only one true God, who created the world and provides all the things his creatures need. Nobody is equal to God or as great. Muslims use the Arabic word for God - Allah.
Prayers (salah) are important to Muslims and are said five times a day at home or at work, or at the mosque. Before praying Muslims wash carefully in a prescribed manner (wudu). A set sequence of movements accompanies the prayers, which are said in Arabic. A clean place is essential for prayer and many Muslims use a mat for this purpose. Children learn wudu and the set actions and words for prayer from an early age. By seven, they should be saying the prayers with help. By ten, prayers are obligatory.
Muslims believe Allah has sent messengers or prophets to tell people how to live. They believe Prophet Muhammad was the last and greatest of God's messengers. They believe he received messages from God to give to the world and these are recorded in the Qur'an. When. Muslims mention Muhammad's name, or that of any other prophet, they add the words 'Peace be upon him' out of respect, and they try to follow the example and teaching of Muhammad. Muslim children are told many stories about the life of the Prophet.
Muslims meet for worship in a mosque or masjid (place of prostration). Shoes are removed on entering the mosque and prayers are normally said in a carpeted prayer hall. A small archway or niche indicates the direction of the Ka'bah in Makkah (Mecca). No statues or pictures are allowed in a mosque but it may be beautifully decorated with patterns or Qur'anic texts. Men attend the mosque more often than women, who tend to pray at home with their children, but there are women's sections in most mosques and children are also brought to the mosque. Muslim men make a special effort to attend the midday congregational prayers at the mosque on Fridays and to hear the Imam's sermon. The Arabic word for Friday means 'day of assembly' but it is not seen as a holiday and Muslims may return to work after prayers.
Muslims have a holy book called the Qur'an. It is written in Arabic and treated with great respect, because Muslims believe it reveals God's words for the guidance of human beings. They make wudu (wash their hands) before handling the Qur'an. It is stored on the highest shelf in a room, sometimes carefully wrapped. Muslims learn to read the Qur'an in Arabic.
Muslims celebrate two major festivals called Ids (Eids). Id-ul-Fitr comes at the end of the month of Ramadan when Muslims fast during daylight hours. It celebrates the completion of a successful fast. Muslims attend the mosque for special Id prayers. They give money and food to the poor. They have a holiday, visit friends, wear new clothes, give presents and cards and eat special food together.
Home and family life are very important to Muslims. The birth of a baby is seen as a blessing. The 'call to prayer' is whispered in the new born baby's ear so that the word 'Allah' is one of the first he will hear. The baby is later named, possibly after one of the Beautiful names of Allah (e.g. Abdul Rahman - servant of al-Rahman) or after the Prophet or one of his family. Children are brought up to respect each other, their parents and elders. They are taught the importance of good manners, kindness and honesty. They join in daily prayers at home or in the mosque and may go to Madrassah or mosque school to read the Qur'an in Arabic and learn the instructions it contains.
src : www.slamnet.org.uk/re/islam.htm